According to Prof Vijayaraghavan, early commercial applications in quantum communication and quantum sensing are possible, but the wait may be relatively longer in the area of quantum computers and simulators.
“However,” he adds, “commercialisation of some component technologies is possible in the quantum computing space, which include ultra-low noise cryogenic amplifiers, high-speed control electronics, and microwave signal processing circuits”.
Prof Vijayaraghavan is the head of the Quantum Measurement and Control Laboratory at TIFR. He leads a group of researchers who have developed a unique three-qubit “trimon” quantum processor. He is simultaneously developing conventional seven-qubit systems as well.
I-Hub QTF: What To Expect
One of the early goals of the hub is to develop a quantum computer of 20-30 qubits.
This appears to be a step up from the level of qubits Indian researchers are currently working at – under 10 qubits. But the number of qubits isn’t everything. Honeywell, for instance, claimed in 2020 to have the “world’s highest performing quantum computer” on the basis of a parameter called quantum volume. They worked with just six qubits.
Still, enough qubits are required to carry out meaningful computations, and the hub seems to be looking in that direction. It can benefit from the quantum computing research work already underway in various institutes.
“There are several projects around the country currently trying to build the first small-scale (4-8 qubits) prototype in India. The hub should allow a larger scale effort and get this to 20-30 qubits in the near future. This will be a significant technology demonstration that will lay the groundwork for scaling to much larger systems, where they will start becoming way more powerful than classical computers,” says Prof Vijayaraghavan.
Various quantum computing platforms will be investigated at the hub. Currently, the superconducting and trapped ion systems are more popular than others. Both of these are in the scheme of things for the planned work in computing.
In addition, development of atomic clocks – with a fractional instability of 10 to the power of -17 to -18 – will be another early goal for the hub.
The scope of the hub is evidently vast. But IISER has help by design.
Over 20 Indian institutes are set to collaborate with IISER Pune. These will include the Indian Institutes of Technology (IITs), the Indian Institute of Science (IISc), TIFR, and other IISERs. The hub is expected to have collaborators from outside India as well.
Within the institute, 13 research groups will be part of the initiative.
“While TIFR and our group are not part of the original list of collaborators, the hub will continue to add new collaborators,” says Prof Vijayaraghavan.
“We have already had discussions with the hub and have proposed a programme on building quantum technologies using superconducting circuits. There will be a particular focus on commercialising component technologies like ultra-low noise cryogenic amplifiers and microwave signal processing circuits,” he says.
Making Headway On Quantum
The DST has sanctioned Rs 170 crore spread over five years for developing the I-Hub QTF.
“Initially, government funding will support the hub, but in the long run the hub aims to be self-sustaining through private investment and introduction of things like professional certification courses,” says Prof Rapol.
Four target areas have been outlined for the hub – technology development, entrepreneurship development, human resource development, and international collaboration. Within these verticals, have been set.
So, the hub will be expected to enable incubation of startup companies, develop skill sets, conduct workshops and courses, and develop state-of-the-art research infrastructure.
“A swift and efficient mechanism to screen projects, disburse funds, and carry out evaluation and course correction has to be implemented. We have to work on building the base rapidly while simultaneously tackling problems at the cutting edge, so that there are tangible outcomes in three to five years. This balance will be crucial,” says Prof Vijayaraghavan.
He also highlights a new challenge, not just for the hub but also for the NM-QTA, arising from the import restrictions placed last summer.
“A vast amount of high-tech infrastructure will be needed to move forward rapidly in developing quantum technologies. However, most of these scientific equipment are not manufactured in India at all and have to be imported. The new rules do not allow importing anything in the range of Rs 5 lakh to Rs 200 crore without going through a cumbersome and time-consuming waiver process,” says Prof Vijayaraghavan.
He says that the restrictions have impeded access to funds released for quantum research in the past year and there is a struggle to get exemptions. “The hub will face similar challenges and will slow down progress tremendously,” he says.
Prof Rapol believes that the hub will open doors to greater self-reliance in technology development in India. By building up domestic expertise, India will be able to lower its import dependence in this area over time.
Science is closing in on four decades since Nobel laureate physicist Richard Feynman published his paper “Simulating Physics with Computers”, in which he argued that in order to simulate quantum systems, scientists need to build quantum computers.
Since then, quantum researchers have achieved a degree of proficiency and confidence in being able to control and manipulate quantum systems to behave in certain ways.
“The progress is tremendous,” says Prof Vijayaraghavan. “We not only have the ability to control natural quantum systems like atoms/ions and photons, but also many synthetic systems like superconducting and semiconducting qubits. It would have been impossible to imagine at that time that one can design and build “macroscopic” systems composed of millions of atoms where one can isolate one or two degrees of freedom which behave quantum mechanically,” he says.
Yet, researchers have made good, steady progress over the years.
Quantum technologies have risen in the level of maturity since the time of Feynman’s paper, says Prof Rapol, adding that much progress has been made especially in recent years.
“There is hope, there is a path to solving these problems,” he says.
One hopes that the hub, along with other related initiatives, can forge a clear path for quantum research and development – including product development – in India.
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