Entanglement is one of the most bizarre phenomena seen when things get tiny or within the quantum realm. If two or more particles are linked in a particular way, their state remains linked no matter how far they are in space. That is, they share a common unified quantum state. Therefore, observing one of the particles automatically provides information about the other intertwined particles, regardless of the distance between the particles. And the action on one of these particles always affects the other particles in the intertwined system.
Who discovered the entanglement?
In the early decades of the 20th century, physicists developed the basic ideas behind entanglement in elucidating the dynamics of the quantum world. They found that in order to properly describe the elementary particle system, we had to use what is called a quantum state.
Nothing is known for certain in the quantum world. For example, it is not possible to know exactly where the electrons are. atom Only in a certain place May There is. Quantum states summarize the probabilities of measuring certain properties of a particle, such as particle position and angular momentum. So, for example, the quantum state of an electron represents all the places where it is possible to find it, along with the probability of finding it at those places.
Another feature of quantum states is that they can be correlated with other quantum states. That is, the measurement of one condition can affect the other. In a 1935 paper, Albert Einstein, Borispodriski, and Nathan Rosen investigated how strongly correlated quantum states interact with each other. They found that when two particles are strongly correlated, they lose their individual quantum states and instead share a single unified state. Another way to think about it is that a single mathematical “container” can describe all particles at the same time, regardless of their individual properties. This unified state becomes known as entanglement.
They say that if two particles are intertwined, that is, their quantum states are strongly correlated and unified, then no matter how far the particles are from each other, the measurements of one particle will automatically be transferred to the other. I found it to have an impact. Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy..
The first physicist to use the term “entanglement” was Erwin Schrödinger, one of the founders of. Quantum mechanics.. He explained that entanglement is the most essential aspect of quantum mechanics, and that its existence is a complete departure from classical thinking.
What is the EPR paradox?
As Einstein, Podolski and Rosen discovered, entanglement appears instantly. Knowing one quantum state automatically knows the quantum state of the entangled particle. As a general rule, even if you place two intertwined particles at both ends of the galaxy, you may still have this momentary knowledge. This seems to violate the speed of light limit.
This result is known as the EPR paradox (short for Einstein, Podolski, Rosen). According to the American Physical Society — The effect that Einstein called “action at a distance”. He used the paradox as evidence that quantum theory was incomplete. However, experiments have repeatedly confirmed that entangled particles affect each other regardless of distance, and quantum mechanics continues to be verified to this day.
There is no generally accepted solution to the paradox. However, the entangled system does not maintain locality (meaning that some of the entangled systems can quickly affect distant particles), but respect causality. In other words, there is always a cause for the effect. Observers of distant particles do not know if local observers have interfered with the intertwined system. The reverse is also true. They must exchange information with each other faster than the speed of light to confirm.
In other words, the limits imposed by the speed of light are maintained even in intertwined systems. You may know the state of distant particles, but this information cannot be transmitted faster than the speed of light.
How do you create a entanglement?
There are many ways to entangle particles. One method is to cool the particles and place them close enough so that the quantum states (representing position uncertainty) overlap, making the particles indistinguishable.
Another method is to rely on some elementary particle process that automatically produces entangled particles, such as nuclear decay. According to NASAYou can also create intertwined photon pairs or light particles by splitting a single photon into a process to generate photon pairs, or by mixing photon pairs with a photon cable.
What can quantum entanglement be used for?
Perhaps the most widely used application of entanglement is encryption. According to Caltech Magazine, In this scenario, the sender and receiver build a secure communication link that contains a pair of intertwined particles. Senders and recipients use intertwined particles to generate a private key that only they know can be used to encode a message. When someone intercepts the signal and tries to read the private key, the entanglement breaks because the state changes when the entangled particles are measured. That is, the sender and receiver are aware that the communication is at stake.
Another application of entanglement is quantum computing. In quantum computing, a large number of particles are entangled, which allows them to work together to solve some large and complex problems. For example, a quantum computer with only 10 qubits (qubits) can represent the same amount of memory as 2 ^ 10 conventional bits.
What is entanglement teleportation?
Unlike the usual use of the word “teleport”, quantum teleportation does not involve the movement or movement of the particles themselves. Instead, quantum teleportation transports information about one quantum state over long distances and replicates it to another location. According to Nature News..
Quantum teleportation is best thought of as a quantum version of traditional communications.
First, the sender prepares a particle that contains the information (that is, the quantum state) that it wants to send. We then combine this quantum state with one of the pairs of intertwined particles. This causes changes that correspond to other intertwined pairs, and you may be sitting at any distance.
The recipient then records the changes in the intertwined partners of the pair. Finally, the sender must send the original changes made to the entangled pair over the normal channel (that is, limited by the speed of light). This allows the receiver to reconstruct the quantum state in a new location.
This may seem like a daunting task to pass one little piece of information, but quantum teleportation allows for completely secure communication. When an eavesdropper intercepts the signal, the entanglement is released. This becomes apparent when the recipient compares the traditional signal to the changes made in the entangled pair.
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