Claiming something is flawed usually suggests unwanted functionality. This is not the case for solid-state systems such as semiconductors, which are at the heart of modern classic electronic devices. They work due to defects introduced in the tightly ordered arrangement of atoms in crystalline materials such as silicon. Surprisingly, defects also play an important role in the quantum world.
Researchers at the US Department of Energy’s (DOE) Argonne National Laboratory, the University of Chicago, and scientific laboratories and universities in Japan, South Korea, and Hungary have provided guidelines that will be a valuable resource for discovering new defect-based quantum systems. Established.International teams follow these guidelines Nature review material..
Such systems have the potential to be applied in quantum communications, sensing, and computing, which can revolutionize society. Quantum communication enables the quantum Internet by delivering quantum information robustly and safely over long distances. Quantum sensing has the potential to achieve unprecedented sensitivity to measurements of biological, astronomical, technical and military interest. Quantum computing can reliably simulate the behavior of matter down to the atomic level, and in some cases, simulate new drugs for discovery.
The team has derived design guidelines based on an extensive review of the vast knowledge gained over the last few decades regarding spin defects in solid materials.
“The flaw we are interested in here is the isolated distortion in the orderly arrangement of atoms in the crystal,” said Joseph Hellemans, a scientist in Argonne’s Department of Molecular Engineering and Materials Science, and Pritzker, University of Chicago. The Faculty of Molecular Engineering explained. ..
Such strains may include holes or holes created by the removal of atoms or impurities added as dopants. These strains can then trap electrons in the crystal. These electrons have a property called spin and function as an isolated quantum system.
“Because spin is an important quantum property, spin defects can hold quantum information in a form that physicists call qubits or qubits, similar to the bits of classical computing information.” Added Gary Wolfowicz, assistant scientist at Argonne’s Center for Molecular Engineering. Department of Materials Science, along with the University of Chicago Pritzker School of Molecular Engineering.
For decades, scientists have studied these spin defects to create a variety of proof-of-concept devices. However, previous studies have focused on only one or two major candidate qubits.
Christopher Anderson, a postdoctoral fellow at the University of Chicago’s Pritzker School of Molecular Engineering, said: “It seemed like there were only a few horses in the Quantum race, but now we know exactly that there are many other Quantum horses and what to look for in those horses.”
The team’s guidelines include the properties of both the defects and the materials selected to host them. Important defect properties are spin, optics (for example, how light interacts with the spin of trapped electrons), and the charge state of the defect.
Possible solid materials include a few already well-studied ones such as silicon, diamond, silicon carbide, as well as other more recent entries such as various oxides. All of these resources have various strengths and weaknesses as described in the guidelines. For example, diamonds are transparent and hard, but expensive. Silicon, on the other hand, is inexpensive and easy to build, but is highly sensitive to free charge and temperature.
“Our guidelines are for quantum scientists and engineers to evaluate the interaction of defect properties with selected host materials when designing new qubits for a particular application.” Heremans said.
“Spin defects play a central role in creating new quantum devices such as small quantum computers, quantum internets, and nanoscale quantum sensors,” Anderson continues. “By using our extensive knowledge of spin defects to derive these guidelines, we have laid the foundation for the quantum workforce (current and future) to design the optimal qubit for a particular application from scratch. “
“We are particularly proud of the guidelines, as our target audience ranges from veteran quantum scientists to researchers in other disciplines and graduate students who want to join the quantum workforce.” Wolfowicz said.
This work also lays the foundation for designing scalable semiconductor quantum devices and works well with Q-NEXT, a DOE-funded quantum information science research center led by Argonne. Q-NEXT’s goals include establishing a semiconductor quantum “foundry” for developing quantum interconnects and sensors.
“Our team’s guidelines serve as a blueprint to assist in directing the Q-NEXT mission in the design of next-generation quantum materials and devices,” said Argonne, Professor of Materials Science at the University of Chicago, Liew Family. David Awschalom, senior scientist in the department, said. He is a professor at the Pritzker Architecture Prize in Chicago and a director of both Chicago Quantum Exchange and Q-NEXT. “For quantum technology with spin, this work sets the stage and tells us how to move forward in the field.”
This study was primarily supported by the DOE Science Department.
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